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Animated Science GCSE 1 to 9 Methods Summary

Animated Science 1-9 GCSE Practical Methods

This booklet of Methods is a simple reference point for the 1-9 Physics GCSE Required Practical methods.

Often questions will be based around these themes and you must learn to interpret the questions on the day as they will try and put them in unfamiliar situations.

This booklet is not designed to teach you everything in the practical’s but to be used to recap what you have already done in class. I have limited most topics to 1 or 2 pages of the bare basics.

You must be able to recall all this booklet and the ideas in it if you want to be able to answer some of the questions in your exams.

They are sure to ask about at least 2 of these topics, and most likely 4 or 5 topics in details so time spent on these topics will stand you in good stead.

Try and use this booklet as a starting point and then read more around the subject and tackle some exam questions to help you out.

Animated Science GCSE 1 to 9 Methods Summary  (PDF)

I have also included some more help on each of the Key Terms you need to know as well. It can be viewed as a PowerPoint or PDF….

Science Key Terminology in Context  (PPTX)

Science Key Terminology in Context (PDF)

GCSE 1 to 9 Summary

Permanent link to this article: https://animatedscience.co.uk/2018/animated-science-gcse-1-to-9-methods-summary

Holst Planets Suite & Nocturnes – Gloucestershire Youth Orchestra 1994

This post is to celebrate a moment in time from 1994 when Gloucester Youth Orchestra played at Cheltenham Town Hall. On this occasion a recording was taken on DAT tape and some copies made for the players to listen to their own music.

Having had this tape cassette in my car for the past 10 years or so I decided to digitise the whole concert so it was preserved for the rest of time on youtube.

I have not altered the recording or cleaned up any noise so please realise this is not a perfect recording but simply a memory to share with any of the other players at GLO at that time, and also for future musicians to be inspired.

I have included an image of the full orchestra compliment which also included some guest players on the day.

It is also interesting to see that many of the orchestra have carried on their musical careers after the orchestra. To name but a few…

Charles Peebles who has gone on to conduct many other orchestras in the past few years.

Matthew Elston who now plays as Principal 2nd violin of the BBC Concert Orchestra and teaches music

Diggory Seacome – musical director – went on to become a Conservative Councillor!

Permanent link to this article: https://animatedscience.co.uk/2017/holst-planets-suite-nocturnes-gloucestershire-youth-orchestra-1994

Sky lights up over Sicily as Mount Etna’s Voragine crater erupts

Sky lights up over Sicily as Mount Etna’s Voragine crater erupts

 

Display of volcanic lightning inside giant smoke and ash cloud over Europe’s tallest active volcano is Voragine crater’s first eruption in two years. The night sky lights up over the east coast of Sicily as Mount Etna’s Voragine crater erupts for the first time in two years. The giant plume of smoke and ash thrown up by the blast creates a dazzling display of volcanic lightning, a mysterious phenomenon seen in many of the most powerful volcanic eruptions.

It is thought that ash particles rubbing together inside the cloud could lead to the buildup of an electric charge that triggers the lightning strikes, much as a weak charge builds up on a balloon rubbed on a jumper

When the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted in 2010, the combination of dust with ice and water from an overlying glacier produced a spectacular “dirty thunderstorm” that sent streaks of lightning leaping around inside the plume that drifted overhead.

The tallest active volcano in Europe, Mount Etna stands 3329m high and has been erupting for an estimated 2.5m years. In modern times, towns and villages in the foothills of Etna have been protected by ditches and concrete dams that divert lava flows to safer ground. The volcano has five craters: the Bocca Nuova, the north-east crater, two in the south-east crater complex and the Voragine. The Voragine crater formed inside the volcano’s central crater in 1945.

Volcanic activity in the region is driven by the collision of the African tectonic plate with the Eurasian plate. Magma from molten rock erupts as lava and ash and builds the volcano in the process.

The ash cloud from Mount Etna’s Voragine crater lights up the sky.
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The ash cloud from Mount Etna’s Voragine crater lights up the sky. Photograph: Marco Restivo/Demotix/Corbis
Fire and ash emissions spew from Mount Etna’s Voragine crater.
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Fire and ash emissions spew from Mount Etna’s Voragine crater. Photograph: Marco Restivo/Demotix/Corbis
Lightning highlights the ash as it spews out Mount Etna’s Vorgaine crater.
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Lightning highlights the ash as it spews out Mount Etna’s Vorgaine crater. Photograph: Marco Restivo/Barcroft Media

http://gu.com/p/4enax?CMP=Share_AndroidApp_WordPress

 

Permanent link to this article: https://animatedscience.co.uk/2015/sky-lights-up-over-sicily-as-mount-etnas-voragine-crater-erupts

Pluto in a higher definition..

New Horizons: Tension mounts over Pluto signal – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-33531751

Permanent link to this article: https://animatedscience.co.uk/2015/pluto-in-a-higher-definition

Pentaquarks…

Large Hadron Collider discovers new pentaquark particle – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-33517492

Permanent link to this article: https://animatedscience.co.uk/2015/pentaquarks

Harnessing the sun with the blackest paint in the world

Harnessing the sun with the blackest paint in the world –

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-32931928Spray paintingImage captionBack to black: This might just look like black paint – but it’s probably the blackest black paint in the world

 

In a cramped laboratory on the campus of the University of California San Diego (UCSD), graduate student Lizzie Caldwell is hard at work, painting tiny squares of metal with a fine mist of black paint.

As experiments go, it doesn’t look terribly impressive.

Yet the paint she is using is highly sophisticated – the result of intensive research. It is also probably one of the blackest materials ever created.

What the research team at UCSD are trying to do is make large-scale solar power generation more viable, by creating a material which can absorb a greater quantity of sunlight than existing coatings, and last longer.

Heart of darkness

The paint is being developed for a new generation of so-called concentrating solar power plants (CSP).

These use thousands of mirrors to focus sunlight on a central tower, which is coated with a dark, light-absorbing material. The light is converted into intense heat, which is used to make steam. The steam can then be used to drive turbines, in order to produce electricity.

It is a very clean form of power generation, and existing plants which use coal or other fossil fuels can be converted to use the technology. In addition, heat can be stored so that power generation can continue even when the sun isn’t shining.

Concentrating solar power plant
Image captionConcentrating solar power plants – like this one in California – use mirrors to reflect the sun’s rays at a central tower

However, there’s a catch. The light-absorbing coatings which are currently used aren’t really up to the job.

They aren’t efficient enough, can’t withstand the highest temperatures and, out in the elements, bombarded with intense sunlight, they don’t last very long either.

According to Professor Renkun Chen, who is helping to lead the research, the new material will be very different.

“First of all, it can absorb the light at a very high efficiency. And secondly, it can withstand very high temperatures in air, above 700 degrees Celsius. That isn’t possible with existing materials”, he says.

Spray painted plates
Image captionThe blacker the material, the more of the sun’s energy it will absorb

Small things

The secret of the new paint lies in nanotechnology – creating a surface made up of layers of microscopic particles. It is designed to minimise reflection.

The research team claims that it can convert up to 90% of the sunlight it captures into heat.

“The size of these particles matches the wavelengths of light, which is in the order of a few nanometres”, Prof Chen says.

“So when light gets in, it will get trapped. It’s as though it gets lost in a miniature forest, and never comes out”.

That is the theory, at any rate. But the mosaic of small metal tiles lined up in the lab for testing is testament to how challenging it is to put that theory into practice.

Each one represents a slightly different technique or chemical formula, as the team searches for the right balance of light absorption and durability.

Fifty shades of black, if you like.

“Right now we’re just playing with a lot of different ideas that we’ve been talking about for the last few months and years” says Lizzie Caldwell.

“We want to make sure we get the perfect, blackest colour”.

Under a microscope, the structure of the nanoparticles that make up the paint can be seen
Image captionUnder a microscope, the structure of the nanoparticles that make up the paint can be seen

Run for the sun

The research has been funded by the US government’s SunShot initiative, which hopes to make solar energy as financially competitive as other forms of power generation by the end of the decade.

There is clearly a very long way to go. Solar energy still accounts for less than 1% of all mass electricity generation in the US, according to the US Energy Information Administration.

But that figure doesn’t tell the whole story.

Solar capacity is growing rapidly, particularly in energy-hungry California. Moreover, the number of homes and businesses using solar panels to generate their own power has risen dramatically over the past five years.

It isn’t just happening in the United States. In China, generous subsidies have led to a very rapid growth of solar power generation over the past few years.

This has come partly in response to the country’s voracious appetite for power and the need to curb severe urban pollution. But China has also become a major exporter of cheap solar technology, which has brought prices down worldwide.

And according to Professor Chen, CSP in particular has the potential to become a major source of clean energy in developing countries, reducing their reliance on burning fossil fuels such as coal.

Renowned environmentalist Denis Hayes, who now leads the Seattle-based Bullitt Foundation, thinks that we could be heading for a golden age of solar power.

Environmentalist Denis Hayes
Image captionEnvironmentalist Denis Hayes is optimistic about the future of solar power

“With solar, if you take a unit of area, there’s only so much sun that is going to strike it,” he says.

“So if you can get twice as much electricity out of that sunshine, and it costs no more or even less than before then suddenly you’ve transformed the market”.

He thinks that one day, entire cities could be powered by the energy of the sun, with the fabric of the buildings themselves being used to trap solar energy.

It’s fair to say that such a sunny utopia remains a very long way off. However, research such as that being carried out at UCSD just might bring it a little bit closer.

So if there is a golden age approaching, it may owe a debt to some very, very black paint.

Permanent link to this article: https://animatedscience.co.uk/2015/black-paint

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